The Hot Life

The Hot Life

Hot springs, colourful microbes: surviving in a world that’s unique, beautiful, and hostile

Yellowstone  National Park is a self-proclaimed “living museum of natural history”.  It contains 3,500 acres of rich landscape situated atop a volcanic  hotspot. Home to grizzly bears and bighorn sheep, mule deer and  timber-wolves, Quaking Aspen and Engelmann Spruce, Yellowstone’s life is  as varied and remarkable as its geography.

But,  what’s even more interesting than the all the animals and plants that  call Yellowstone their home? Perhaps the microscopic organisms that form  rainbow rings in their hot springs.

Imagine  an enormous, deep hole in the middle of a rocky landscape. Three  hundred and seventy feet across, it is almost like a football-field dug  into the ground, endzones and all. But, this is no empty hole. Even as  you stand, you can feel the hot air blowing into your face from the  scalding waters below. Temperatures there reach up to 70°C, the same as a  slow oven.

This  hole is called the Grand Prismatic Spring, and it’s one of the most  notorious hot-springs in yellowstone. At its cobalt blue center are  gallons of superheated water, fuelled by the fiery depths of the Earth  and rendered sterile by the scalding temperatures. This extreme heat,  combined with the risk of earthquakes and eruptions, make the hot-spring  an overwhelmingly hostile place.

But even through this hostility, life persists.


Millions  of years ago, when most carbon was still locked in the ground and life  was very young, the Cyanobacteria arose. These bacteria were the first  ever creatures to learn the secret of photosynthesis, generating energy  straight from the light of the sun.

Cyanobacteria  — or “cyano”, as I’ll call them from now on — are the oldest  photosynthesisers. And they’re still at it today. Because they evolved  in much harsher conditions than ours, cyanos well adapted to survive in  extreme places: places that you or I might think impossible to live in.  Each small but mighty green cell contains powerful, microscopic  machinery that allows them to survive.

To start with, cyano follow the same age-old rule as many other microbes: don’t go it alone.

When  living  in extreme environments, often get themselves into microbial  mats: spaces with everyone living together, woven into a matrix, and  covered in a nutrient-rich, sugary film. Microbial mats are like  complex, staffed communities of bacteria. They’re highly organized, with  different species playing different roles within the system. The role  of cyano was thought to be energy making factories, focusing all their  efforts into the photosynthetic process, but in general, the byproducts  of each microbe can be used as food for another.

Microbial  mats are heavily studied by ecologists, who seek to understand how the  microbes interact with each other and their environment. They’ve also  gained the attention of scientists at NASA. These “exobiologists” study  cyanobacteria to understand the life that existed on the early Earth,  and figure out what traces they leave behind so we look out for the same  patterns on other planets.

If  you’re not a scientist, you can still see cyanos by visiting their  habitat. The microbes in Yellowstone’s mats are tiny, but because there  are so many of them, the structures they form are visible to the naked  eye Different microbes form different colours on the mat.

And in the midst of them, you can spot the cyanobacteria as expansive bands of emerald green.


Different  places have different kinds of cyanobacteria. In Yellowstone, with lots  of sunlight during the day, cyanos are adapted to make plenty of energy  through photosynthesis. But what wasn’t clear until the early 2000s was  how this particular cyano manage to find and use nitrogen.

Nitrogen  is common on Earth — it’s the most abundant gas in our atmosphere. But,  it exists in a form that most living organisms cannot immediately use:  inorganic N₂. In order to use this atmospheric nitrogen, organisms must  collect it, break it apart, and turn it into something that can be  absorbed — or rather, assimilated into organic molecules such as  the  vastly important DNA and protein found in every living cell.

Some groups, like the soil cyanobacteria Nostoc, are able to fix nitrogen on their own. But Nostoc doesn’t  have to cope with extreme heat the way Yellowstone’s cyanos do — which  is why scientists once doubted the latter could even perform such a  feat. After all, if these cyanos  are so focused on photosynthesising,  they’d hardly have time for anything else.

So,  how do the most extreme cyanobacteria gain enough nitrogen to survive?  The surprising answer: by changing their metabolism when the sun goes  down.

During  the day, the cyanos are hard at work: photosynthesising and making the  energy needed to grow and reproduce; staying active; maintaining the  microbial mat. But when night falls, their metabolism switches like a  light. Instead of photosynthesising, they begin turning nitrogen gas  from the air into nitrogen compounds they can use.

When  scientists monitored the cyanos over a 24-hour period, they saw that  photosynthesis pathways shut down at night, while genes used for  nitrogen fixation turn on. This answers a crucial question about how  life manages to get enough nitrogen in extremely hot environments.


Cyanobacteria  are the first organisms we know of that can make energy and fix  nitrogen at such incredibly high temperatures. But they’re just one  example of the spectacular skills organisms display Yellowstone’s  diverse habitats. Perhaps even more hostile than their environment is  the superheated and relatively dry soil that can be found throughout  Yellowstone.

Take  your eyes away from the colourful hot-springs for a moment, and look  instead at the hot soil. They too are superheated, reaching up to 65°C  which is just five degrees less than the hot-springs themselves. While  there is an abundance of water in hot springs, in soils of this heat,  life also has to balance extreme dryness. Most plants and fungi would  dry, shrivel, and die.

Despite  the odds, if you were to visit Yellowstone, you could see little clumps  of dark-green grass rising up from the ground: the woolly-rosette grass  Dichanthelium lanuginosum. Their thick leaves  spread out like tiny rosettes to catch the Sun, but underneath the  surface roots are at extreme heats. And to survive, they must employ  some unique tactics.

Most  of these tactics are chemical — like changing the structure of  molecules in their membranes and DNA to make them more stable, which in  turn will prevent the heat from tearing them apart. But,  notwithstanding, these molecular adaptations, surviving the blistering  heat sometimes relies on teamwork.

The panic-grass would never be able to survive if it wasn’t for the symbiotic fungus, Curvularia protuberata.  While plants and fungi can’t survive soils of such extreme heat on  their own, they can work together symbiotically to build up a tolerance  for heat. It’s not clear quite how they’re doing it, but they’re  definitely collaborating in some way or another.

And wait. The story’s not over yet.


In  2007, a new paper came out noticing how fungal viruses can influence  the behaviour of the fungi they infect. Researchers were trying to sort  out the fungi living in the plant-fungi system of Yellowstone, when they  discovered a new virus. As luck would have it, that virus was living  inside Curvularia, the same fungus that woolly-rosette grass D. lanuginosum collaborates with.

This virus, they found, is what gives Curvularia its heat-tolerance properties. Without the virus, there was no heat  tolerance observed in the plants — suggesting that these viruses were  not only involved, but necessary for the survival of the fungi and so  the survival of the plant. That’s why it’s been tentatively named CThTV,  short for “Curvularia thermal tolerance virus”.

CThTV  is a pretty remarkable discovery. While two species often collaborate  through symbiosis, this is the first time scientists have found a close,  tightly-integrated partnership of three.

The  exact mechanism by which fungi contribute to the plant’s heat tolerance  is not yet understood. Maybe the fungi helps remove harmful compounds,  which accumulate when the plant is stressed by heat. It will take more  research to understand the exact role that CThTV plays, but what’s  interesting is that such a setup exists at all.

It is, as the authors duly noted in their paper title, “a virus in a fungus in a plant”.


Yellowstone  national park is truly a museum of natural history — because it’s a  great space for grizzly bears and Engelmann spruce, yes, but also  because it’s not the best for many creatures. The  periodic earthquakes, rare but sudden eruptions, consistently present  scalding water and scorching soil all make it an uncomfortable place to  live.

So, the organisms that do stay on are the hardy adaptable one. They’re the ones that shatter our  expectations of what life is capable of. The shimmering microbial mats,  the patient grasses on the ground, and many other species I haven’t even  heard of yet; they all have secrets to show, if only people are willing  to look.

They  teach biologists how important collaboration is in the natural world.  They teach space agencies how life on other planets might alter its  environment. And, most important of all, they tell us a stories of  resilience in the face of all odds, in places that are too frequently  overlooked.


Snipette in Print? We’re thinking of bringing out a print edition of Snipette — and want your ideas! Click here to fill the survey!

Curious for more? Sources and references for this story can be found here.